The two-day Lesson Observation & feedback Course ran in Worthing on 9/10 January. We have a great group from Exeter, Brighton, London, and Portsmouth. Excellent feedback on how useful the course was for senior ESOL staff.
Ten Step Teacher Development Guide
On our initial teacher training courses, we use a notional development and assessment ‘route’; the idea is that teachers develop practical skills in a certain order and it is difficult to develop ‘ahead’ of yourself. For example, it is felt that a teacher who can’t control their teacher talk is unlikely to master clear instruction sets, so the priority for feedback will be to focus on the high talk rather than the instruction giving. The ‘route’ is a useful indicator for deciding the order of developmental points an observer can suggest, but be wary because as always there are exceptions: very experienced teachers can display a high level of teacher talk but they may still be able to instruct reasonably well, as the class may be used to them or the perhaps the high talk is not at key instructional points of the lesson. You may find that even in advanced teacher development courses the majority of teachers are still struggling with fairly basic classroom management issues or task design issues. The idea of the development route is that the teacher accumulates the skills, developing themselves until they are able to incorporate all the skills within the ten steps of the teacher development route.
The ten-step teacher development route. The teacher can:
- Looks like a teacher
Stand in front of the class, look students in the eye, speak loudly enough to be heard, and appear present and aware of the learners
- Has presence and rapport (a professional manner/engagement)
Engage with students, has a pleasant manner, is on top of class administration, has learned names and is in a recognizable teacher role
- Control teacher talk
Control the amount they talk and modify their output for different stages of the lesson
- Give clear instructions
Efficiently set up a range of task and activities using models, gesture, logical staging, check questions and monitor
Establish a context from which to elicit information from learners, filter and direct that information, and engage learners.
- Maintains pace with group management techniques
Monitor and adjust the pace through voice, management, techniques and using information gained in monitoring and through awareness of the group.
- Uses viral feedback and a learner focus
Move class out of lockstep into different workgroups, setting up a variety of interactions depending on the task and learner ability; use viral feedback, encourages students to support and help each other.
- Hears and answers learner questions
Engage, probe and demonstrate linguistic knowledge when answering learner questions; provide appropriate practice, particularly in the area of language awareness.
- Give oral correction and pronunciation drilling
Filter errors, correct students using a range of techniques and correct terminology. Drilling is well organized, both choral and individual.
- Use learners as content givers
Elicit and incorporate learner output to transform it into useful lesson content
10 Step Teacher Development Guide Downloadable copy
Delighted to inform you of an ELT training & development event being held on the 10th & 11th January 2020 in Worthing, UK. The training is an opportunity for senior ELT staff to develop important skills in formal lesson observations.
ELT trainer and author of published ELT Lesson Observation & Feedback Handbook, Jeanette Barsdell leads the two-day training event with an interactive and hands-on approach which will give attendees tips and strategies for every part of the observation process. Her book has been well received by ELT professionals and this is a chance to have a professional conversation about how we can make the observation process meaningful and constructive.
Booking details and event information is in the attached leaflet. Complete a booking form and return with payment of £120 to secure a place
‘I believe this is a must-have book for anyone who has to conduct lesson observations now, or expects to have to do so in the future.’
English Teaching Professional, (119), November, 2018
‘At last, a much-needed guide for senior teachers and directors of study required to give regular feedback on observed lessons. Barsdell draws on long experience as a CELTA trainer and language school owner to provide detailed guidance on what to comment on and how to give meaningful feedback to support sustainable professional development. A ‘must-read’ for all DOSs!’
Prof.Janet Enever, University of Reading on Amazon, July 2018
‘It’s a must-have for any staffroom. I only wish I’d had it when I was a newly minted DOS!’
Dr. Phiona Stanley, Senior Lecturer in TESOL, UNSW Sydney, Australia on Amazon, July 2018
future training dates in London, York & Bournemouth
Katie D. Hewitt
WhatsApp/Mobile UK + 44 7863 299330
Skype – EduVision
The article for lesson ESL observers looks at issues inexperienced teachers have with task feedback and ideas to develop more efficient, learner-centered approaches.
Included are notes to support lesson observers.
Traditionally, many new teachers start by conducting post-task feedback with their learners in the following way:
- Teacher gives input
- Learners work on a cloze task in pairs, groups, or solo with a time limit.
- The teacher hovers, monitoring from afar, waiting for learners to finish, perhaps using the time to catch up on admin or set up the next task. The teacher does not engage with the learners unless they are very stuck or have finished before the others and need ‘managing’ in order to stop them from disturbing other groups. The teacher sees their task as letting learners work independently, getting on with the task.
- When most learners have finished, the teacher moves to the front of the class and asks in open class, ‘what is the answer to number 1?’, and then proceeds to check each answer in open class. The teacher acknowledges correct answers and corrects the wrong ones. Sometimes the answers are written on the board for clarity.
The teacher often closes the task by asking who got most/least or some right or wrong. The feedback stage can be longer than the actual task.
In interviews, teachers say that they feel happy and secure with this approach; it is a time during which they feel knowledgeable and safe in their ‘expert’ role. They have the correct answers from the teacher’s book, and the students are either right or wrong. Many new teachers have learned this method from their own schools, and see it as excellent practice, something to aspire to. It is, I sometimes suspect the desired place as it fits with our image of a teacher leading their class, holding the knowledge. For the new teacher, the management appears straightforward, and they feel safe in control.
This approach to task feedback can work; it is sometimes necessary to do feedback in open class. However, there are many issues with it; for example, while the teacher is waiting for the learners to complete the task, they are not necessarily:
- Assessing the precise language difficulties for the group
- Using it as an opportunity to provide individual support, help for weaker learners or extension for stronger ones
- Setting up stronger students to help weaker ones or using learners to spread knowledge across the group
- Feeding in minor points to save later, lengthy whole class explanations
All of the above can work to modify the final open class work, allowing the teacher to abbreviate the feedback, focus only on the parts where help is needed, create an additional practice or reteach some of the input.
There are other issues with the approach that an observer can pick up on;
- The pace can drag in feedback, mainly if the teacher has not accurately assessed the learner issues and gives equal time to what is unknown and known!
- A lack of collegial support, with rather a daunting or over-competitive atmosphere
- Learners focus on task completion rather than learning from the task
- The balance of power being with the teacher, who is a ‘distant expert’ rather than a more equal collaborator.
The potential for chaos is high. For example:
Teacher What is the answer to number 1 please?
Student 1 ‘has saw’
Teacher No, it is ‘has seen’. And the answer to number 2 please Angelina?
Student 2 I not know
Teacher It is ‘has visited.’ Please write it down.
By this point Student 1 has missed the answer to number 2 as he was correcting his answer to number 1. Therefore, he asks his neighbor resulting in them both missing the answer to number 3. By the time the teacher has reached the last answer, it is unlikely that anyone has a complete set of answers. At this point, students might even give up trying to get all the answers right because they know the teacher is not aware of who knows what.
This open class feedback model is a widespread approach with some teachers, some of whom use it for every task. As an observer, you can provide effective alternative approaches that are more learner-centered and arguably a more efficient use of valuable classroom time
Viral Task Feedback – An Alternative Model
‘Viral’ feedback is based on the idea of spreading ideas and information across a group, from person to person rather than using open class feedback where everything is filtered through the teacher. Viral feedback involves the teacher working in and with the group while they are on-task. The teacher is an active member of the group, listening and checking to assess issues, feeding in some answers, coaching those with the correct answers to teach others, challenging stronger learners, and giving on the spot feedback about what answers are correct or not.
During viral feedback, the teacher may:
- Successfully manage the whole group, bringing them to task completion more or less together
- Support weaker learners by giving individual support
- Challenge stronger learners by identifying which answers are wrong
- Identify areas of tasks that the majority struggle with
- Get peers to help each other
Viral feedback benefits include:
- time for individual learner support and attention
- a more collegial, supportive atmosphere
- efficient use of expensive teacher time – the teacher is on-task and not just waiting for students to complete the work
- more accurate assessment of where learners need support which leads to more focussed input from the teacher
- better pace as more learners are on task
- correct answers being circulated around the group, so there is a greatly reduced need for a final run-through of the answers
- teacher in a more reactive role, responding to actual need, creating a more empowered classroom atmosphere.
Tips for the Lesson Observer
If the teacher is experienced and is used to using viral feedback the lesson feels ‘fluid,’ relaxed, and productive. However, for teachers newer to the process there are potential issues that teachers struggle with
A key issue is the lack of clarity in staging so that everything becomes ‘blurry’, not being clear when one stage has finished, and another started. In this case, the teacher probably has assessed that the group has grasped the key points, and it is time to move on but does not make this clear to the group who do not necessarily realize that the task is complete, with some still wanting to check answers or go over other points.
In this case, we suggest a 3-stage task close down:
- Teacher steps back, get class attention, and ask if there are any further questions before moving on.
- Teacher gives overall task feedback, perhaps to highlight the main point of task or give praise
- Teacher explains how the next task is linked to the cloze, perhaps as another practice and moves on.
The teacher has to be prepared to know the answers and be able to answer unplanned questions about exercise. Many teachers will not have done the task themselves beforehand, so we encourage new teachers to do the task themselves and also to explain to the learner why an answer is correct or not.
Some teachers realize that they need to engage while learners are on task, but they are not sure how to do it so they can take over the task and end up micro-teaching each pair, repeating themselves over and over. Often the pace will drop as groups wait for the teacher to make their way around the room. In this case, we encourage the teacher to help one pair then set up them up to help others.
Other teachers tend to ‘drift around,’ getting close to the learners but not listening, assessing, or providing support. In this case, we ask them to engage in a low-key manner, demonstrate that they are listening.
Teachers can get stuck with one pair, usually the weaker ones, at the cost of monitoring or supporting the whole group. We encourage them to pull back regularly and ‘scope the room’ to assess where everyone else is up to and if anyone else needs attention.
Some teachers can manage viral feedback but then still do a lengthy open class report back at the end. In this case, the observer can ask why they feel it is necessary.
For the observer I think the key criteria is efficiency. Ask yourself if the teacher is using class time in the most effective way to meet the aims of the task.
Children love games but adults spending hard-earned money and time on language classes are not always so happy at the idea of ‘frivolous’ games. We haven’t stopped the activities but we have banned the word ‘game’ from planning and the classroom replacing it with ‘language practice task’. We encourage teachers to state exactly what type of practice they are giving the learners and why it is needed. The effect of this has been that learners are happier to do fun tasks if they understand there is a transparent learning or practice point. With the teacher focussed on language aims, there is clearer task management, pace, and improved lesson balance.
Active listening for a DOS or trainer is a key management skill. It allows you to build positive, more collaborative working relationships with all stakeholders, resolve conflict more easily, increase goodwill and garner valuable information about your school giving better decision-making tools.
Active listening is using all your senses, giving your full attention to helping the speaker feel heard and valued, it demonstrates respect and a willingness to take on board another person’s ideas and thoughts. It’s a process through which you can learn more about what is happening in your school. People who feel heard are more likely to drop a complaint, contribute and participate than those whose negative feelings continue to build perhaps even exacerbated by a poor listening situation. Active listening leads to happier, more involved stakeholders and quality information about your school. It’s the foundation for an effective participative and collaborative working atmosphere.
Despite being high-value active listening can be quite hard work, it takes time, energy and a lot of concentration. If you are an active, problem-solving type of DOS, you might find it difficult to focus on the listening rather than finding immediate solutions for problems. At times it seems counter-intuitive to listen rather than to do, but keep in mind that it is the process of listening that is often more valuable than the actual outcomes or solutions. On the other hand, If you are a more laid back listener it can be a strain to actively listen, to engage, rather than be passive in the process.
Steps to great active listening:
Step back and breathe. You need to be mentally and physically calm and quiet to listen, you can’t do it if you are wound up or feeling attacked. Calmness is catching too! An anxious speaker will relax more quickly if you set a calm tone. Try to detach from emotionally engaging with the content. For example, if you feel the speaker is completely unreasonable, or highly personal focus your thinking on the process of listening rather than the ‘merits of the case’, try to close down your internal dialogue.
Don’t problem solve
Your goal is to listen and hear, not win the argument, be right or defend the school. Detach yourself from trying to allocate blame, find a solution or dismissing the issues as unimportant. There is no need for you to provide solutions, clarify misunderstandings or put things right within the listening process – these can be done later. Focus on listening and really hearing what is being said. Most problems are greatly reduced or even disappear if the speaker feels they have been heard.
Avoid judgment. You need an open mind to actively listen, to be open to new ideas, new perspectives and possibilities. Even when good listeners have strong views, more experience or knowledge they suspend judgment, hold their criticism and avoid arguing
Find an empty room, create a comfortable space and turn your phone off. If it’s feasible, offer to make a drink for the other person. Take an attitude of them being the priority and deserving full respect. Ask if they are comfortable and if they need anything. Tell admin to see that you are not interrupted. Try to tune out all distractions. Ask permission to make notes as a just in case, so you don’t miss important points.
Choose your time
A lot of feedback is very immediate, situations can be rushed and time is short. However, if you feel a situation needs active listening it’s ok to defer the conversation. Say “ What you are saying is very important and I really need to listen, but that is difficult at the moment, can we meet up at….” Most people will appreciate your offer of full attention over an immediate, rapid response.
Giving feedback can be stressful, people tend to brace themselves, plan and rehearse how they will say things and then have to wind themselves up to actually say what is on their mind. As a listener acknowledge that they have trusted you enough to share their thoughts, say ‘thank you’ for the effort they are making. It is better for someone to tell you how they feel than to leave school and tell everyone else!
Use wait time
Make time, be patient, it might be difficult for the speaker to talk about this so give them time, extend your wait time so they can form their thoughts into words, essential if you are not both working in your mother tongue. As in the classroom, make the wait time a comfortable, easy space rather than you showing your impatience. Try not to:
- anticipate the end of their sentences
- rush or interrupt
- ‘top-up’ responses (adding your own information).
- jumping in before they finish with your questions
- thinking ahead about what you will say next
- overuse fillers such as ‘indeed’
- fiddle with pens or check your phone
Give the speaker your full attention
Interest can be shown through verbal and non-verbal messages. Seat yourself so you can see the other person, maintain eye contact, nod your head, smile or make sympathetic faces. Agree by simply saying ‘yes’ or ‘mmm’ to encourage them to continue. Keep your body open, try not to cross your arms or legs, unclench fists. Keep shoulders and arms loose, and lean in slightly toward the speaker.
Check your understanding
You need to find the balance between letting the speaker say what they need to, without interruption and checking that you have understood correctly. The trick is not to jump in too quickly with clarification questions and when you do, keep it gentle and not take the tone of an interrogation! You can check you have understood correctly by paraphrasing or repeating back the key elements.
At the end see if the speaker agrees with your summary. You can use language such as:
Tell me if I have got this right
Is this a fair summary?
Closing down the conversation
After summarizing your understanding it can help, if it hasn’t already been covered, to ask the speaker what course of action they would like to be taken and if they have any suggestions as to how to improve the situation.
Thank the speaker for their time and for sharing with you. Create a follow-up plan, which may be ‘I’ll get back to you when I have spoken to…’ or ‘let me have a think and get back to you after the weekend …’
On starting out, many teachers struggle with eliciting. The first issue is that they often believe it is quicker and more efficient just to tell learners the meaning, often regardless of the learner’s level! We push new teachers to ‘ask before tell’, and to be very wary of planning comments that start with the words: Explain, Inform or Tell. These words tend to lead to a teacher monologue with low learner engagement.
New teachers have learnt that they are supposed to elicit, to ask the learners questions, but lack the ‘how’ of it or its precise purpose. They tend to ask learners to guess what the teacher is thinking, particularly in the area of checking meaning. Consequently, quite a lot of early elicitation is slightly random, it can be repeating what the teacher says, only tenuously connected to the topic or often it becomes ‘guess what the teacher is thinking’.
Good elicitation is checking learner knowledge of language based on a developed, meaning rich context. The context could be developed with pictures, gestures, realia, situation, etc. However it is done, in an ideal world, it will effectively demonstrate the meaning of the target language. The context will be so clear that even if the learners can’t answer the elicitation questions they are able to use the context to develop their understanding of the language. An experienced teacher will also be able to utilize the context to deepen, convey and check the learner’s grasp of the language. So, with a clear context, the meaning is evident and it’s just the language the learners don’t have.
However, ‘guess what I am thinking’ sometimes amounts to a psychic test for the learners! The teacher gives so few contextual clues that learners can start randomly guessing. Then, when the teacher does give the language they have little chance at grasping the meaning or how to use it. A simple example below:
Scenario 1 – Guess what I am thinking
Teacher: What is a small red fruit called?
Teacher: No, it’s smaller than a strawberry
Teacher: No, it’s more like a strawberry
Learner Orange? (Now guessing wildly and probably has no idea what a raspberry is)
Teacher: No, the word I want is ‘raspberry’.
Scenario 2 – Elicitation for meaning
Teacher: (Holds up a picture of a raspberry). What’s this called?
Learner: Don’t know
In scenario 2 the class has been engaged, the teacher knows if the learners have understood the meaning, and can also assess some of the learner’s ability to pronounce the word.
Tips for lesson observers
If your teacher is eliciting by ‘guess what I am thinking’ get them to write down the key meaning elements of the target language then ensure that all these elements are incorporated into the conveyance.
Note that experienced teachers have good wait time when eliciting and are able to give learners time to formulate responses, they don’t jump in with an answer too fast.
Very skilled teachers are also able to move past the first wave material they elicit from learners and bore down, pushing for more accuracy and a better understanding of what the learner does and doesn’t understand.
The best teachers are also able to incorporate what they elicit into the next stages of the lesson, using the elicited material as a reference point rather than just to acknowledge it and move on with their own prepared commentary.
Below are suggested commentary notes that can be adapted and used in written and oral feedback on the topic of elicitation.
Suggested Commentary Notes
|Positive comments||Areas for development|
|It’s great to see you tie what you elicit to the next stage, which gives meaning and purpose to the elicitation. Your learners see that what they say has value and they have been heard which is very motivating||You elicited the different language well but then needed to do something with the words in order to create a purpose for the elicitation.|
|Its good to see you eliciting target language meaning, which is much more efficient than asking: What does X mean?||Work from meaning to the word rather than asking questions like ‘What is a plaster?’ Remember that to answer this type of question is difficult and doesn’t give the teacher very accurate information about the learner’s actual knowledge of the language.|
|Well done for establishing such a clear context from which you could elicit so much from and keep learners engaged.||Create meaning rich contexts so that it is easier to elicit the target language. If learners don’t know the language you can use the context to convey the meaning. It moves the activity from ‘guess what the teacher is thinking’ to being an effective assessment tool.|
|You were right to ignore the first wave of material you elicited and bore down for the sketchier knowledge, the place where the learners are less fluent and need input.||Try to filter what you elicit more. Learners tend to give the easy, well-known stuff first. Acknowledge the contributions but then bore down and challenge them so you can expand what they already know.|
|You have great wait time, which allows students the time they need to formulate language and respond to your questions.||Try to increase your wait time to give learners much needed time to formulate their responses. Remember that at this level it is very hard to produce immediate responses to anything.|